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广州中考英语解题要点讲解之语法选择和完型填空

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广州中考英语解题要点讲解之语法选择和完型填空

广州中考英语解题要点讲解之语法选择和完型填空 一.教学内容 语法选择和完型填空解题技巧和习题训练 二.教学过程 1.真题考验及分析 2.中考要点及方法的掌握 3.习题巩固及训练 三.教学反思及总结 四.作业布置 一.语法选择真题展现 Once, a king loved music so much that he searched the world for the best instrument there was. One day, a magic man?26??the king a harp(竖琴). The king took it to the palace, but?27??he played it, the harp sounded terrible. Many?28??people tried it. They agreed that the harp was??29??and the king had been fooled. The harp was thrown out as rubbish. A poor little girl?30?found the harp, and even though she didn’t know how31?it, she decided to have a try. She played and played, the whole day through, for months and years. The music the produced was never perfect,??32?each time it sounded a little better. Then one day, suddenly, the harp started to play the most beautiful music. It was in fact?33??magic harp, and could only be played well by someone who would put in the necessary effort. The king heard the music from his window, and called the girl to the palace. When the king saw that she was playing his old harp, he was filled?34??joy. At that moment he made the girl his own private????35, giving her and her family many riches.(203 words) 26. A. offer??????????????????????? B. offers?????????????????????? C. offered???????????????????? D. has offered 27. A. when?????????????????????? B. before?????????????? ?????? C. if???????????????????????????? D. because 28. A. another ????????????????? B. other??????????????????????? C. others?????????????? ?????? D. the other 29. A. used ??????????????? ????B. using ?????????????? ?????? C. useless???????????????????? D. uselessness 30. A. late ??????????????????????? B. lately?????????????????????? C. latest??????????????????????? D. later 31. A. played???????????????????B. to play ?????????????????? C. playing??????????????????? D. to playing 32. A. so??????????????????????????? B. and ??????????????????????? C. or??????????????????????????? D. but 33. A. a???????????????????????????? B. an??????????????????????????? C. the?????????????????????????? D. / 34. A. in ????????????????????????? B. of??????????????????????????? C. by?????????????????????????? D. with 35. A. music?????????????? ?????? B. musical??????????????????? C. musician????????????????? D. Musically 二.语法选择解题方法 (1)、语法选择的特点 本题型一般为200词左右的叙述短文,在篇章中考查基本语法,第一句话往往是完整的,一般不设空。通过读第一句话可以根据动词的形式判断文章故事发生的时间。所以阅读第一句话,你的注意力应放在动词的形式上。因为有语境,难度较低。 (2)、语法选择考点归纳——让你知己知彼百战百胜!!! 1. 动词:主要从动词的时态、语态、介词+Ving、情态动词+动原等方面考查。 2. 名词:主要从可数名词单复数、可数或不可数的判断以及所有格的用法。 3. 形容词:分词作形容词的考查,-ed是修饰人,-ing是修饰物,只要会判断主语,可做对。 4. 副词:考查副词的基本用法之一—修饰动词。只要空格前面出现动词,则应该选择副词。 5. 连词:考查频率最高的是but、so、or、and、although、though、both、either、neither、all的用法。掌握这几个连词的基本用法即可,较容易选对答案。 6. 代词:考查人称代词、不定代词的运用。 7. 介词:考查固定搭配。考查频率最高的介词:on、in、at、for用在时间前的用法,with、without的用法。 从出题的考点来看,动词考查是最多的,一般为3-4题。因此学生对动词的掌握尤为重要。 大多数学生认为该题型较难,所以丢分较严重。原因分析:对基础的语法点没有掌握,缺乏解题方法与技巧。 三、指点迷津——让你不再为语法选择抓狂!!! step1:读第一句话 动词 判断时态 为做题时选动词找依据 话你知:动词会给你很多信息,做题过程中集中关注动词的变化! step2:以句为单位 找提示词 确定考点 话你知:考动词:一看 有无时态标志 二看 空格前有无情态动词、介词 (情态动词+动原;介词+Ving) 三看 有无and/or (如有则观察and/or前或后的动词形式,答案选项的形式要与其保持一致) 四看 选项出现被动语态,则判断主语与动词的关系是主动还是被动(初二年级以上) 考名词:考查单复数,常常结合感叹句考查 首先排除How a选项,用感叹句的判定方法即在句子后面找出主语与谓语,如空格后的词为形容词则选how选项,如是名词则判断该名词为可数单数则用what a选项,可数复数或不可数则用what选项。 考形容词:若选项出现-ed、-ing一般考查的是分词作形容词的用法:-ed是修饰人,-ing是修饰事物,只要会判断主语,即可做对。 考副词:若选项出现ly结尾的,可以判定该空格考查副词的运用。在该句子中,空格前有动词,则要用副词修饰。 考连词:考查频率最高的是but、so、or、and、although、though、both、either、neither、all的用法。判断文章前后的逻辑关系即可。but:表示转折关系;so:表示因果关系;or:或者、否则之意。and:表示并列关系;though/although:表示虽然……但是,不能与but连用。 both...and:表示两者都;either...or:表示两者之一;neither...nor:表示两者中没有一个;all:表示全部都,用于三者以上。 考代词:人称代词——动词/介词后用宾格;空格后有名词,用形容词所有格,没有名词则用名词所有格;反身代词常考——enjoy oneself / help yourself / dress oneself / teach oneself;不定代词something、everything、anything、nothing——被形容词修饰时,形容词后置;other、the other、others、the others——other、the other分别为“其他的”、“其余的”的意思,后面跟名词,others、the others分别为“其他人/东西”、“其余的人/东西”,已经是名词。有the,说明是在一定范围内。 考介词:常考on、in、at、for用在时间前的用法,with、without的用法。 at: 用于具体时刻、传统节日前,例如:at 8:00,at Christmas. 固定搭配:at noon, at night in: 用于世纪、年、季节、月等不具体的时间前,例如:in 2011 固定搭配:in the morning/afternoon/evening on: 用于具体的某一天,或具体的早上、下午、晚上。 for: 后面+一段时间,现在完成时的标志 with: 与...一起,和...;带着...,有...的;以(手段、材料),用(工具) without: 没有。 千叮万嘱:介词后面的动词+ing step3:代入答案 充分说服你的选项是百分之百对的! 四、学以致用——让你轻松拿高分!!! Long long ago there was a poor farmer called Fred. Fred and his wife, Doris lived 1 together in their small old house. One winter night, the Luck Fairy(仙女) 2 them. “Fred, you’re a good farmer. I’d like 3 you a wish,” said the Luck Fairy. “A wish?” said Fred. Fred and Doris smiled at 4 . Then Fred said, “Thank you, Luck Fairy. We’re very healthy and happy.” “We’re old, we can still work 5 the field every day.” said Doris. “You work very 6 but you make a little money. Would you like some gold coins?” asked the Luck Fairy. “Oh, no, my dear Luck Fairy. We’re poor. But we have 7 to eat.” replied Fred. “You can use the gold coins to buy some clothes. The winter is very cold.” said the Luck Fairy. “Though we haven’t many clothes, 8 we’ve got enough.” said Doris. “Well, what about a nice house?” asked the Luck Fairy. “Thank you, but I love my small old house very much. I 9 here since I was born. I don’t need a new house,” said Fred. “You’re quite different 10 other people,” said the Luck Fairy. “I wish you happiness and luck forever.” Then the Luck Fairy disappeared and never came back. ( )1. A. happy B. happily C. sad D. sadly ( )2. A. visit B. visits C. visited D. was visited ( )3. A. to give B. gives C. giving D. gave ( )4. A. the other B. another C. others D. each other ( )5. A. in B. at C. for D. from ( )6. A. hardest B. harder C. hard D. hardly ( )7. A. no B. little C. enough D. few ( )8. A. / B. however C. because D. but ( )9. A. lived B. have lived C. had lived D. lives ( )10. A. of B. for C. from D. Into 中考完形填空解题技巧及例题解析 一.完型填空真题展现 Kierman was born in Sydney, Australia, and grew up near the sea. For more than 40 years, he raced in international sailing competitions. In 1987, Kierman was competing in an around-the-world race when he began to?36??the huge amount of rubbish in the world’s oceans. When he returned to Australia, he??37?to do something about it. He organized a community?38?called “Clean Up Sydney Harbour.” On Sunday, January 8, 1989, more than 40,000 volunteers came out to?39away rubbish. The next year, Kierman made the clean-up a national event. It was a huge?40?. Across Australia, about 300,000 people spent the day improving their local?41?. Since then, “Clean Up Australia” has got??42??every year. In 2002, for example, 800,000 people cleaned up almost 15,000 tons of rubbish from Australia’s beaches, parks and streets. Kierman was?43?with the success of his project. In 2003, he started an even bigger program. With the???44??of the United Nations Environment Program, he introduced “Clean Up the World”, an international program that supports communities around the world in cleaning up and protecting the environment. “Clean UP the World” has grown?45??and his wonderful idea has now spread from one city to the whole world.(199 words) 36. A. save ?????????????????????? B. collect ??????????????????? C. notice?????????????? ?????? D. produce 37. A. refused ?????????????????? B. decided??????????????????? C. pretended????????? ?????? D. stopped 38. A. law ??????????????????????? B. party??????????????????????? C. company ???????? ?????? D. event 39. A. clear??????????????????????? B. sand ?????????????????????? C. turn???????????????????????? D. give 40. A. problem?????????????????? B. success???????????????????? C. surprise??????????????????? D. failure 41. A. culture ?????????????????? B. project???????????????????? ?????? C. government????????????? ?????? D. environment 42. A. older ?????????????? ?????? B. smaller?????? ????????????? C. bigger?????????????? ?????? D. faster 43. A. happy?? ???????????????? B. angry?????????????????????? C. disappointed ?????????? D. concerned 44. A. need ?????????????? ?????? B. help???????????????????????? C. hope??????????????????????? D. action 45. A. loudly?????????????? ?????? B. gently?????????????? ?????? C. rapidly???????????????????? ?????? D. busily 二.完型填空解题技巧 1、中考完形填空试题说明 完形填空:共10小题,每小题1分。在一篇150~200词的短文中留出10个空白,要求考生从每题所给的3个选项中选出最佳选项,使补足后的短文意思通顺、前后连贯、结构完整。本部分所需时间约为5分钟左右。 2、命题特点及选材特点 完形填空是一种要求高、综合性强的语言测试题,以阅读为形式,以上下文为线索,以理解能力、词汇知识、语法知识、习惯用法以及分析判断能力为解题基础,是一种较高层次的阅读理解题。所选题材多样,但都贴近学生的生活实际,具有趣味性、教育性、思想性;体裁多以记叙文为主,也有说明文、议论文等。所选短文其难度略低于阅读理解题的短文。 3、考查范围 1)词语辨析、基本句型、基础语法; (2)固定搭配与习惯表达; (3)阅读理解能力和逻辑推理、判断能力。 近年来,完形填空题单纯考语法的题目很少,越来越侧重对综合语言应用能力、阅读理解能力的考查。其中,词汇运用能力的考查表现为要求考生在一定的语境下表达词汇的语义、词汇的搭配,特别关注上下文的行文逻辑和相互照应。 4、完形填空试题的一般解题思路 (1).跳过空格、通读全文、把握大意。 先跳过空格,通读试题所给的要完形填空的短文,获得整体印象,即了解文章的体裁、背景、内容、结构,以及情节发展的前因后果 ;通读全文时,尽量避免文章空格的影响,初步搞清文章的大概意思即可。不要纠缠于一句话、一个空,否则会断章取义,进入误区。(时间:3分钟) (2).结合选项、综合考虑、初定答案。 在理解全文意思的基础上,再结合所给备选项细读全文,联系上、下文内容,注意从上、下文的语法结构和词语搭配及从选择项中寻找解题的提示,以词、句的意义为先,再从分析句子结构入手,根据短文意思、语法规则、词语固定搭配等进行综合考虑,对备选项逐一进行分析、比较和筛选,排除干扰项、初步选定答案。 (3).瞻前顾后、先易后难、各个击破。 动笔时要瞻前顾后、通篇考虑、先易后难。对比较明显直接的、自己最有把握的答案先做,一下子不能确定答案的,先跳过这一空格,继续往下做,最后回过头来再集中精力解决难点。这时可结合已确定答案的选项再读一遍短文,随着对短文理解的深入,可以降低试题的难度,提高选择的正确率。 (4).复读全文、逐空验证、弥补疏漏。 完成各道题选择后,把所选的答案代入原文,再把全文通读一篇,逐空认真复查。看所选定的答案是否使短文意思前后连贯、顺理成章,语法结构是否正确,是否符合习惯表达法。如发现错误答案或有疑问的,应再次推敲、反复斟酌、做出修正。 (5).历届升中考试《完形填空》试题解析 ☆ 通过 上下文暗示 进行判断 ☆ 通过 逻辑推理 进行判断 ☆ 通过 词义辨异 进行判断 ☆ 根据句子结构或固定搭配 进行判断 ☆ 根据 生活常识 进行判断 (6)、《完形填空》仿真训练 There once was a farmer who lost his watch in his barn (谷仓). The watch was only cheap but was very ____36 to him because it was a gift from his father. After _ 37 __ the barn for a long time, he gave up and asked for __38 __ from a group of children playing nearby. He __39 __ them that the person who found the watch would be rewarded. Hearing this, the children hurried inside the barn ___40 __. They searched everywhere but still could not find the __41 ___. Just when the farmer was going to give up, a little boy went up to him and asked to be given another ___42___. The farmer looked at him and thought, “ Why not? After all, this kid looks honest.” So the farmer __43 _ the little boy back into the barn. After a while the little boy came out with the watch in his hand! The surprised farmer asked the boy how he ___44__ where the rest had failed. The boy replied, “ I did nothing but sit quietly and listen for the sound of the watch.” This shows us that sometimes a __45__ mind can think better than an excited one.” 36. A. important B. expensive C. useless D. interesting 37. A. finding B. searching C. watching D. studying 38. A. money B. danger C. work D. help 39. A. promised B. taught C. warned D. believed 40. A. angrily B. slowly C. immediately D. hardly 41. A. rule B. book C. child D. watch 42. A. way B. chance C. lesson D. smile 43. A. threw B. sent C. gave D. caught 44. A. came B. knew C. succeeded D. suggested 45. A. beautiful B. smart C. peaceful D. quick

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